KlemesProf Dr-Hab Jiří Jaromír KLEMEŠ, DSc – CV

Energy Footprints Reduction and Virtual Footprints Interactions

Jiří Jaromír Klemeš, Petar Sabev Varbanov

Sustainable Process Integration Laboratory – SPIL, NETME Centre, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology – VUT Brno, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno, Czech Republic

Increasing efforts and resources have been devoted to research during environmental studies, including the assessment of various harmful impacts from industrial, civic, business, transportation and other economy activities. Environmental impacts are usually quantified through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). In recent years, footprints have emerged as efficient and useful indicators to use within LCA. The footprint assessment techniques has provided a set of tools enabling the evaluation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) – including CO2, emissions and the corresponding effective flows on the world scale. From all such indicators, the energy footprint represents the area of forest that would be required to absorb the GHG emissions resulting from the energy consumption required for a certain activity, excluding the proportion absorbed by the oceans, and the area occupied by hydroelectric dams and reservoirs for hydropower.

An overview of the virtual GHG flow trends in the international trade, associating the GHG and water footprints with the consumption of goods and services is performed. Several important indications have been obtained: (a) There are significant GHG gaps between producer’s and consumer’s emissions – US and EU have high absolute net imports GHG budget. (b) China is an exporting country and increasingly carries a load of GHG emission and virtual water export associated with consumption in the relevant importing countries. (c) International trade can reduce global environmental pressure by redirecting import to products produced with lower intensity of GHG emissions and lower water footprints, or producing them domestically.

To develop self-sufficient regions based on more efficient processes by combining neighbouring countries can be a promising development. A future direction should be focused on two main areas: (1) To provide the self-sufficient regions based on more efficient processes by combining production of surrounding countries. (2) To develop the shared mechanism and market share of virtual carbon between trading partners regionally and internationally.

Soyhan

Prof. dr. Hakan Serhad Soyhan – CV

Renewable energy sources for environmental protection

Development in energy sector, technological advancements, production and consumption amounts in the countries and environmental awareness give shape to industry of energy. When the dependency is taken into account in terms of natural resources and energy, there are many risks for countries having no fossil energy sources. Renewable and clean sources of energy and optimal use of these resources minimize environmental impacts, produce minimum secondary wastes and are sustainable based on current and future economic and social societal needs. Sun is one of the main energy sources in recent years. Light and heat of sun are used in many ways to renewable energy. Other commonly used are biomass and wind energy. To be able to use these sources efficiently national energy and natural resources policies should be evaluated together with the global developments and they should be compatible with technological improvements. Strategic plans with regard to energy are needed more intensively and they must be in the qualification of a road map, taking into account the developments related to natural resources and energy, its specific needs and defining the sources owned by countries. In this presentation, the role of supply security was evaluated in term of energy policies. In this talk, new technologies in renewable energy production will be shown and the importance of supply security in strategic energy plan will be explained.